The Arachnid Order Solifugae

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PHYLOGENY/TAXONOMY

Phylogeny of the Solifugae
Keys to FamiliesFamily Ammotrechidae
Family Ceromidae
Family Daesiidae
Family Eremobatidae
 

EREMOBATINAE
  Eremobates
      angustus
group
      aztecus
group
      lapazi
group

     pallipes group
         Eremobates arizonicus
         Eremobates barberi
         Eremobates californicus
         Eremobates chihuaensis
         Eremobates cinerascens
         Eremobates constrictus
         Eremobates dentilis
         Eremobates dilatatus
         Eremobates docolora
         Eremobates durangonus
         Eremobates formicarius
         Eremobates gerbae
         Eremobates lentiginosus
         Eremobates pallipes
         Eremobates putnami
         Eremobates simoni
         Eremobates suspectus
         Eremobates woodruffi
      palpisetulosus
group
      scaber
group
      vallis
group

  Eremocosta
  Eremorhax
  Eremothera
  Horribates

THEROBATINAE
  Chanbria
  Eremochelis
  Hemerotrecha

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Family Galeodidae
Family Gylippidae
Family Hexisopodidae
Family Karschiidae
Family Melanoblossidae
Family Mummuciidae
Family RhagodidaeFamily Solpugidae
Catalog of the Solifugae

 

 
Eremobates pallipes species group

Diagnosis:  Muma (1951) recognized this species group as including those species of Eremobates in which the fixed cheliceral fingers of males are straight or at most slightly sinuate in dorsal view, have a constriction but no distinct notch at the base, and lack an ectal process near the base.  The mesoventral groove is distinctly dilated basally, and the first postspiracular abdominal sternite may or may not be provided with ctenidia. Females, Muma (ibid.) reported, have roughly triangular opercula that are adjacent in the anterior third to half of their length but are moderately separated posteriorly. Both rows of fondal teeth, he noted, are graded in size I, III, II, IV, although he later u(Mma 1986, 1987) suggested that fondal tooth formulae are not valid for genus or group separation, as they are subject to wear, especially by females.  Brookhart and Muma (1981) characterized males of the pallipes group has having the following attributes:  Fixed cheliceral finger straight or slightly curved upward with a  constriction but no distinct notch or spur at the base; mesoventral groove of fixed finger dilated basally into a cup-like structure; basal flange of mesoventral groove of fixed finger distinct but variable in length, width, and pitch; movable cheliceral finger with a large principal tooth, an anterior tooth, 2 small intermediate teeth, and a mesal tooth.; palpi with or without a scopula of papillae; first post-stigmatic abdominal sternite with or without ctenidia. A/CP = 5.45-6.20. Females were characterized as having the following attributes: fixed chelicera! finger with principal and medial teeth large, an anterior tooth half as large as principal tooth, 2 intermediate teeth between principal and medial teeth, and 1 between medial and anterior teeth; movable cheliceral finger with a large principal tooth, an anterior tooth, 2 intermediate teeth, and a mesal tooth; palpi usually without a scopula and first post-stigmatic abdominal sternite without distinct ctenidia; genital opercula roughly triangular and adjacent anteriorly but slightly to moderateiy separated posteriorly; A/CP=4.55·5.50. Both sexes were characterized as having the fondal teeth graded in size I, III, II, IV. Muma (1989), in a key to the species groups of Eremobates based on males, noted that these are small species, and characterized  males of this group as having the mesal groove of the fixed cheliceral finger mesoventral in position, narrow apically (occupying less than half of finger width), and distinctly dilated basally, with the  fixed cheliceral finger straight or at most slightly sinuate, constricted near its base, but without an ectodorsal tooth-like process. The anterior tooth of the movable cheliceral finger, he noted, is present and normal.  In an accompanying key to the species groups of Eremobates based on females, he characterized the females as having opercula that are not or are only moderately separated posteriorly, are broadly triangular in shape, without distinct pits midway along ectal margins (except for E. mimbrenus Muma), have mesal margins that are parallel anteriorly, and straight or evenly curved to the posteriomesa1 notch. which is variable in form.  The posterior mesal margins, he noted, are straight or evenly curved.

Distribution: North America: western United States and adjacent Mexico.
Included species: 

Eremobates arizonicus (Roewer 1934)
Eremobates barberi (Muma 1951)
Eremobates californicus (Simon 1879)
Eremobates chihuaensis Brookhart & Cushing 2002
Eremobates cinerascens (C. L. Koch 1842)
Eremobates constrictus (Putnam 1882)
Eremobates dentilis Brookhart & Muma 1981
Eremobates dilatatus (Putnam 1882)
Eremobates docolora Brookhart & Muma 1981
Eremobates durangonus Roewer 1934
Eremobates formicarius (C. L. Koch 1842)
Eremobates gerbae Brookhart & Cushing 2002
Eremobates lentiginosus (Kraepelin 1899)
Eremobates pallipes (Say 1823)
Eremobates putnami (Banks 1898)
Eremobates simoni Muma 1970
Eremobates suspectus Muma 1951
Eremobates woodruffi Brookhart & Muma 1981

Key to species:  

Key to the pallipes species·group of Eremobates Banks from Brookhart and Muma (1981).

1. Pale species: propeltidia pale, at most, dusky marginally; legs pale to slightly dusky; palpi pale, at most slightly dusky on tarsi and apical ends of metatarsi. Males with cheliceral fondal notch slightly longer than wide. Female opercula with median notch obscure..............................................................................................................................................................2

1'. Dusky or dark species : prope1tidia dusky or dark with a pale median stripe; legs dusky with 1 or more segments decidedly darker than metatarsi and/or tarsi; pulpi dusky throughout and or dark on 2 or more segments. Males with fondal notch wider than long or much longer than wide. Female opercula with median notch small to large but distinct...............................................................................................................................................................5

2(1). Males with 2 ctenidia on first post--stigmatic abdominal sternite. Females with mesal margins of the opercula sclerotized for 70% or more of their length. A western Colorado, Utah, Montana, and Wyoming species.................Eremobates docolora Brookhart & Muma 1981

2'. Males without ctenidia. Females with mesal margins of the opercula sclerotized for no more than 60% of their length................................................................................................................... 3

3 (2). Male mesoventral groove of fixed cheliceral finger distinctly narrowed above first fondal teeth. Female opercular mesal margins sclerotized for 60--60% of their length ond curved posteriorly. An eastern Colorado, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, N.W. Texas, eastern New Mexico, and eastern Wyoming species.....................Eremobates pallipes (Say 1823)

3'. Male mesoventrol groove broad throughout its length. Female opercular mesal margins sclerotizcd for 40-60% of their length and truncate posteriorly. New Mexico and Arizona species................................................................................................................................................................4

4 (3). Male fixed cheliceral finger with a distinct ventral tooth. Females unknown. A southeastern Arizona species....................................Eremobates dentilis Brookhart & Muma 1981

4', Male fixed cheliceral finger without teeth. Females diagnosed in couplet 3. A western New Mexico and eastern Arizona species............................Eremobates arizonicus (Roewer 1934)

5 (1). Dusky species : propeltidia lightly to distinctly dusky with pale median stripe often indistinct; legs more distinctly dusky at union of femora and tibia; palpi dusky throughout and slightly to distinctly darker on metatarsi and tarsi. Males with cheliceral fondal notch slightly wider than long; fixed cheliceral finger straight or lightly curved mesally ; no abdominal ctenidia. Females with median notch delineated by mesally curved posterior margins..............................................................................................................................................................6

5'. Dark species ; propeltidia dark for all or most of length with pale median stripe distinct; legs distinctly dusky or dark on 3 or more segments ; paipi distinctly dusky or dark from apical ends of femora through tarsi. Males with fondal notch variable ; tip of fixed cheliceral finger lightly curved ectally ; 2 abdominal ctenidia. Females with median notch wide but not well delineated .....................................................................................................................9

6(5). Males with fixed cheliceral finger distinctly curved upward. Females with median notch of the opercula occupying more than 1/2 of the opercular length. A northcentral and southcentral Texas species...................................................................Eremobates simoni Muma 1970

6'. Males with fixed cheliceral finger straight or indistinctly curved upward. Females with notch occupying less than 1/2 of the opercular length......................................................................7

7(6). Males with mesoventral groove of fixed finger narrowed for most of its length. Females with median opercular notch small, only 1/4 of the opercular width..........................................8

7'. Males with mesoventral groove wide for most of its length. Females with median opercular notch moderate in size, about 1/3 the opercular width; an east-central Arizona..................................................................................................Eremobates suspectus Muma 1951

8(7). Males diagnosed in couplet 5, 6, 7. Females with median opercular notch variable in form but not invading vulva. A southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico species.............................................................................................Eremobates durangonus Roewer 1934

8'. Males unknown. Females with the mesal margins of the median opercular notch apparently invading vulva. Distribution unknown............Eremobates dilatatus (Putnam 1882)

9(5). Males with fixed cheliceral finger bearing 3~5 tiny denticules. Females diagnosed in couplet 5. A southern Texas species...............................................Eremobates barberi (Muma 1951)

9'. Male fixed fmger without denticules. Females unknown. Positively known oniy from type locality in Big Bend National Park, Texas.....Eremobates woodruffi Brookhart & Muma 1981

Notes: When the group was erected by Muma (1951) characters utilized in distinguishing species within the group included,  for males, the number of papillae in the palpal scopula, the width of the fondal notch, the number of abdominal ctenidia, and the color of the malleoli. For females, the distinguishing characthers included the form and size of the caudal notch of the genital opercula and color of the malleoli. Other characters such as the total length, the lengths of the palpi, leg I, and leg IV, general coloration patterns. curvature of the male fixed cheliceral finger, and the presence of denticules on the lower margin of the male fixed finger were also noted.  Brookhart and Muma (1981) utilized, in addition to the above, length/width measurements of the male's cheliceral fondal notch; measurements of the female genital opercula; measurements of the length and width of the propeltidium; and/or the length and width of the chelicerae. Measurements were analyzed both alone and as ratios (i.e., cheliceral L/W, propeltidial L/W, and the A/CP, which was obtained by summing the length of the palpus, leg I and leg IV, and dividing that figure by the length of the propeltidium plus the length of the chelicerae).  They reported that the A/CP ration was established to demonstrate the relationship of appendages (A) to body length (CP). They regarded the body length as the combined lengths of the chelicerae and the propeltidium,  excluding the abdomen which is subject to size variability caused by the presence or absence of food, eggs, or semen.


 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   
   
 



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