The Arachnid Order Solifugae



Phylogeny of the Solifugae
Keys to FamiliesFamily Ammotrechidae
Family Ceromidae
Family Daesiidae
Family Eremobatidae
Family Galeodidae
Genus Galeodes
Genus Galeodopsis
Genus Galeodumus
Genus Gluviema
Genus Othoes
Genus Paragaleodes
Genus Paragaleodiscus
Genus Roeweriscus
Genus Zombis 
     Zombis pusiola
Family Gylippidae
Family Hexisopodidae
Family Karschiidae
Family Melanoblossidae
Family Mummuciidae
Family Rhagodidae

 Family Solpugidae
Catalog of the Solifugae

Genus Zombis Simon 1882


Zombis Simon, 1882: 253 Kraepelin 1899: 200 ; Roewer 1934: 505 Adobe PDF icon; Harvey, 2002: 453 .
?Zombis Pocock 1897: 250 Adobe PDF icon.
?Paragaleodes (part): Kraepelin 1901: 22 .

Type species: Zombis pusiola Simon, 1882, by monotypy.

Distribution: Israel.




Original description (Simon 1882, p. 253):

"Cephalothorax antice subrectus. Tuber oculorum magnum, parum altum, postice obtuse sulcatum, antice setis binis vix bulbosis munitum. Pedes maxillares metatarso subtus regulariter breve spinoso, tarso ad basin attenuato. Pedes sat breves. Femur IV gracile, compressum haud dilatatum. Tarsus l unguibus carens. Tarsus III triarticulatus, articulo secundo primo multo minore. Tarsus IV triarticulatus, articula primo longo, duo bus ultimis brevioribus et fere aequa longitudine. Ungues glabri graciles et longi praesertim postici. Spiraculorum pectina nulla. Laminae coxales utrinque 3: 2 approximatae supra coxa affixae, ultima ad apicem trochanteri affixa.
Ce genre remarquable se distingue de tous les Galéodide
s par le nombre de ses lamelles coxales qui n'est que de trois au lieu de cinq, la première lamelle du trochanter et celle du trochantin font également défaut. Par le nombre et la proportion des articles tarsaux il se rapproche du genre Zerbina Karsch, mais s'en distingue encore par la longueur des griffes et la structure du mamelon oculaire."

Translation: Cephalothorax in front nearly straight. Ocular tubercle large, eye pair elevated, posterior sulcus rounded, anterior paired setae barely thickened or strengthed. Pedipalp metarsus ventrally usually with short spines, tarsus attenuated towards base. Tarsus quite short, Femur IV slender, narrow, not at all dilated. Tarsus l claws absent. Tarsus III three-segmented, second segment much shorter than first. Tarsus IV three-segmented, first segment long, two distal ones shortest and nearly equal in length. Claws smooth, slender, and long, especially posteriorly. Spiracles without combs. Malleoli on both sides 3: two affixed approximately above coxae, apical one affixed to trochanter.
This remarkable genus is distinguished from all other galeodids by the number of its malleoli, which is only three instead of five, as the first malleolus of the trochanter and that of the trochantin are lacking. It is also distinguished by the number and the proportions of  the tarsal segments, in which it resembles the genus Zerbina Karsch, and the length of the claws and the structure of the eye mound.

Subsequent accounts:

Pocock 1897, p. 250:

"? Zombis of Simon, based upon a specimen from Jaffa, and said to be characterized by the possession of only three pairs of malleoli, three tarsal segments on the third and fourth legs, and only a pair of setae on the ocular tubercle. But, as is explained below (p. 258), the number of malleoli, of tarsal segments, and of ocular setae is often but an indication of immaturity, and that it is probably so in the case of Zombis may be inferred from the fact that the type, pusiola, is only 9 millim. long."

Kraepelin 1899, p. 200:

"In ganz änlicher Weise dürfte auch die von SIMON aus Sűd-Yemen beschriebene Zombis pusiola als eine jugendliche Galeodes in Anspruch zu nehmen sein, wie bereits POCOCK (22, p. 250) vermutet hat.  Das Exemplar ist nur 9 mm lang, also ancheinend noch sehr jung. Die Bezahnung der Kiefer, der basal verschmälerte Tarsus des Maxillarpalpus, die Zahl der Tarsen des 4. Beines und deren relative Länge stimmen durchaus mit den Charakteren der Gatt. Galeodes űberein. Da aber das 1. Beinpaar keine Kralle trägt und der Protarsus der Maxi1larpalpen als kurz bedornt bezeichnet wird, so dürfte es sich ·wahrscheinlich nicht um einen echten Galeodes, sondern um eine Jugendform der gleich zu charakterisierenden Gatt. Panlgaleodes handeln, die gerade in Yemen verbreitet ist.  Das einzige Bedenken, welches dieser Annahme entgegensteht, ist die Zahl von 3 Tarsengliedern am 3. Beinpaar, doch ist es wohl nicht zu gewagt, hierbei an eine Anomalie oder -- bei der Schwierigkeit gerade derartiger Feststellungen - an ein Versehen des Autors zu denken."

Translation: In a quite similar way Simon might be also be regarded as having described Zombis pusiola from southern Yemen [Israel] from a juvenile Galeodes, as Pocock (1897, p. 250) has already suggested. The specimen is only 9mm long, and seemingly still very immature. The dentition of the jaw, the basally narrowed tarsus of the pedipalp, the number of the tarsal segments on the 4th leg and their   relative length absolutely coincide with the characters of the genus Galeodes.  Because, however, the 1st pair of legs bear no claws and the protarsus of the pedipalp is described as short spined, it might likely not be a real Galeodes, but a juvenile form of the genus immediately to be characterized Paragaleodes, which is distributed just in Yemen. The one thing to consider with which this assumption conflicts is the number of 3 tarsal segments in the third pair of legs, but it is scarcely too adventurous to consider this an anomaly or  - with the difficulty in viewing them - an oversight of the author.

Kraepelin1901, p. 22, 25:  Zombis Simon 1882 listed as a tentative synonym of Paragaleodes Kraepelin 1899; Zombis pusiola Simon 1882 listed as a tentative synonym of Paragaleodes scalaris C.L.Koch 1842.

Roewer 1934, p. 505:

"Die Gattung Zerbina, von Karsch 1880 S. 233 auf Gluvia gracilis C. L. Koch 1842 S. 355 begrűndet, ist nach Kraepelins Untersuchung (1899) sicher eine nicht erwachsene Galeodes-Art (vgl. Kraepelin 1901 S. 22) und fast ebenso sicher auch Zombis Simon (Zombis pusiola Simon 1882 S. 253) (vgl. Kraepelin 1901 S. 25)."

Translation: The genus Zerbina Karsch (1880 p. 233), based upon Gluvia gracilis C. L. Koch (1842, p. 355), is according to Kraepelin's examination (1899) certainly not based on an adult galeodid (cf Kraepelin 1901, p. 22), nor, almost certainly, is Zombis Simon (Zombis pusiola Simon 1882, p. 253) (cf Kraepelin 1901, p. 25).

Harvey 2002, p. 453:

"Although Roewer (1934) treated Paragaleodes Kraepelin (1899) as a synonym of Galeodes Olivier, 1791, later authors including Birula (1938) and Turk (1960) revalidated the name and provided a more comprehensive diagnosis. However, Kraepelin (1899) did not nominate a type species and to my knowledge none has ever been designated, thus leaving the genus in a state of taxonomic limbo. Related to this problem is the status of Zombis Simon (1882), described for the sole species Z. pusiola Simon, 1882 from Israel. Kraepelin (1901) tentatively synonymized Z. pusiola with Paragaleodes scalaris (C.L. Koch, 1842), which places Zombis as a potential senior synonym of Paragaleodes if the type species of both taxa are considered to be congeneric. Kraepelin (1899) included several species in Paragaleodes and all but Galeodes barbarus Lucas, 1849 is currently included in the genus. If G. barbarus is designated as type species of Paragaleodes, then this generic name will become a synonym of Galeodes as currently defined, and Zombis becomes available for those species currently in Paragaleodes. However, if one of the other species originally included in Paragaleodes by Kraepelin (1899) is selected as the type species, then Zombis will have priority over Paragaleodes whenever the selected type species and Z. pusiola are deemed to be congeneric. I am extremely reluctant to replace Paragaleodes with Zombis without a more detailed review of the taxonomy of galeodid genera, and note that Kraepelin (1901) only tentatively synonymized Z. pusiola with P. scalaris, so the true taxonomic status of Z. pusiola is still unknown. Therefore, I propose the following solution: I hereby designate Galeodes scalaris C.L Koch, 1842 (new designation) as the type species of Paragaleodes, and I disregard Kraepelin's synonyny of Z. pusiola with P. scalaris, allowing Zombis to stand as a monotypic genus until the necessary revisionary work is completed to more fully understand the identity of the names involved. If any future work upholds Kraepelin's (1901) decision, the case should probably be submitted to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature to enable the retention of the better known Paragaleodes."

Note:  No illustrations of the type species/type specimen appear to exist.

One species is included in the genus:


Zombis pusiola Simon

Zombis pusiola Simon, 1882: 253-254; Harvey, 2002: 453.
Type locality: Yafo (as Jaffa), Tel Aviv, Israel.
Distribution: Israel.


Distribution (by country) of Zombis Simon


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