The Arachnid Order Solifugae



Phylogeny of the Solifugae
Keys to FamiliesFamily Ammotrechidae
Family Ceromidae
Family Daesiidae
Family Eremobatidae
Family Galeodidae
Genus Galeodes
Genus Galeodopsis
Genus Galeodumus
Genus Gluviema
Genus Othoes
     Othoes floweri
     Othoes hirsti
     Othoes rimmonensis
     Othoes saharae
     Othoes vittatus

Genus Paragaleodes
Genus Paragaleodiscus
Genus Roeweriscus
Genus Zombis

Family Gylippidae
Family Hexisopodidae
Family Karschiidae
Family Melanoblossidae
Family Mummuciidae
Family Rhagodidae

Family Solpugidae
Catalog of the Solifugae

Genus Othoes Hirst 1911


Othoes Hirst, 1911a: 220-221; Hirst 1912: 231; Roewer, 1934: 535-536, figs. 313 f,g,k, 318 a; Panouse, 1960b: 183-184;Panouse, 1964:49-51.

Type species: Othoes floweri Hirst, 1911 a, by monotypy.

Distribution: Africa, Middle East.




Othoes hirsti Lawrence 1954. Paintings by Vladimir Timokhanov


Original description (Hirst 1911a: 220, 221):

"Patella and tibia of" maxilIipalp (of female) without either spines or bristles. Legs long and slender; the tarsus of the first leg apparently without claws and furnished at the end with a dense scopula of fine hairs, which are forked at their extremities. Tarsi of second and third legs with the spinal  armature I 1 + 1 + 2 + 2 I 2 (1) I ; as will be seen from this formula, an additional unpaired spine is present on the proximal segment, the spines on the anterior side of this segment being four in number (two of which are unpaired), and those on the posterior side only two in number. Claws of the second, third, and fourth pairs of legs much longer than in Galeodes, those of the legs of the fourth pair being the longest (fig. 1 and fig. 2)."


Subsequent accounts:

Hirst 1912: 231

This genus can be easily distinguished from Galeodes by the much greater length of the terminal part of the claws of the posterior legs. Moreover, the ventral surface of the tibia and metatarsus of the palp is only furnished with fine hairs, spines and strong bristles being entirely absent. Owing to the similarity in the length of their appendages and of the coloration of the palp the species of this genus present a considerable superficial resemblance to those of Galeodopsis (subgen. of Galeodes), but they differ from them in a number of very important structural characters. The stigmata of the second and third abdominal segments are pectinate above and the basal portion of the claws is hairy in Othoes, as in all other Galeodidae.

Roewer 1934 (pp. 535-536, figs. 313 f,g,k, 318 a):

Galeodidae, deren 2. und 3. Tarsus ventral mit jeweils oder  Dornen und deren 4. Tarsus ventral mit 2.2.2/2/0 Dornen bewehrt ist (Abb. 313, f, g, k). - Unguiculus der Krallen des 2. - 4. Tarsus auffällig lang und kaum kürzer als die halbe Länge des Pedunculus (Abb. 318, a). - Am Gebiß fehlt bisweilen der zweite der üblichen 3 Vorderzähne des unbeweglichen Fingers, und am 2. und 3. Tarsus trägt das letzte Glied bisweilen nur je einen Dorn (?).

Translation: Galeodidae, whose 2nd and 3rd tarsi are each armed with or ventral spines and whose 4th tarsus is armed with 2.2.2/2/0 ventral spines  (Figs. 313, f, g, k).  Unguiculus of the 2nd through 4th tarsal claws remarkably long and barely shorter than half the length of the pedunculus (Fig. 318, a).  In the dentition of the fixed finger, the 2nd of the usual 3 anterior teeth is sometimes missing, and on the 2nd and 3rd tarsus, the last segment now and then bears only one spine (?). 

Five species are included in the genus:


Othoes floweri Hirst

Othoes floweri Hirst, 1911a: 221-222, figs 2-3; Roewer, 1934: 536, fig. 318d; Panouse, 1964: 51-54, figs Ib, 2a-e.
Type locality: Wadi (as Wady) Haifa, Sudan.
Distribution: Sudan.

Othoes hirsti Lawrence

Othoes hirsti Lawrence, 1954a: 118-120, figs 5a-b; Panouse, 1964: 57-65, figs la, 4-5, 6a-b, 7a-d, 8-9, lOa-b, 11a-b.
Type locality: Jiddah (as Jedda), Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
Distribution: Saudi Arabia.

Othoes rimmonensis Panouse, Levy and Shulov

Othoes rimmonensis Panouse, Levy and Shukov, 1967: 515-520, figs 1-15.
Type locality: Machtesh Rimmon, Israel. Distribution: Israel.

Othoes saharae Panouse

Othoes saharae Panouse, 1960a: 15-16, figs 1-3; Panouse, 1960b: 176-183, figs 1-9; Panouse, 1961a: 258-262; Panouse, 1961b: 121-129; Panouse, 1964: 65-73, figs Id, 12, 13a-b, 14, 15ad, 16, 17a-b, 18a-b; Cloudsley-Thompson, 1968: 119; Kaestner, 1968: 221; Legendre, 1968: 40; Deyle, 1969: 51-54, fig. 1; Cloudsley-Thompson, 1977: 67; Punzo, 1998g: figs 2-9, 2-10, 2-13,2-15,4-2,6-9.
Type locality: Beni-Abbes, Bechar, Algeria.
Distribution: Algeria, Mauritania.

Othoes vittatus Hirst

Othoes vittatus Hirst, 1912: 231-232; Roewer, 1934: 536; Levy and Shulov, 1964: 110, fig. 12; Panous~ 1964: 54-57, figs 1-3a.
Type locality: unknown.
Distribution: Israel.



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