The Arachnid Order Solifugae

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PHYLOGENY/TAXONOMY

Phylogeny of the Solifugae
Keys to FamiliesFamily Ammotrechidae
Family Ceromidae
Family Daesiidae
Family Eremobatidae
Family Galeodidae
Genus Galeodes
     Galeodes abessinicus
     Galeodes adamsi
     Galeodes afghanus
     Galeodes agilis
     Galeodes anatoliae
     Galeodes annandalei
     Galeodes arabs
        Galeodes a. arabs
        Galeodes a. syriacus
     Galeodes araneoides
     Galeodes armeniacus
     Galeodes ater
     Galeodes atriceps
     Galeodes atroluteus
     Galeodes atrospinatus
     Galeodes aulicus
     Galeodes auronitens
     Galeodes australis
     Galeodes babylonicus
     Galeodes bacillatus
     Galeodes bacillifer
     Galeodes bacilliferoides
     Galeodes bactrianus
     Galeodes barbarus
     Galeodes belutschistanus
     Galeodes bengalicus
     Galeodes bicolor
     Galeodes blanchardi
     Galeodes bocharicus
     Galeodes bogojavlenskii
     Galeodes bubi
     Galeodes caspius
        Galeodes c. caspius
        Galeodes c. fuscus
        Galeodes c. pallasi
        Galeodes c. subfuscus
     Galeodes chitralensis
     Galeodes citrinus
     Galeodes clavatus
     Galeodes conversus
     Galeodes crassichelis
     Galeodes ctenogaster
     Galeodes ctenoides
     Galeodes cursor
     Galeodes dahlahensis
     Galeodes darendensis
     Galeodes darius
     Galeodes dekanicus
     Galeodes dellacaveae
     Galeodes discolor
     Galeodes distinctus
     Galeodes edentatus
     Galeodes egregius
     Galeodes elegans
     Galeodes ephippiatus
     Galeodes excelsius
     Galeodes fatalis
     Galeodes fessanus
     Galeodes festivus
     Galeodes flavivittatus
     Galeodes forcipatus
     Galeodes franki
     Galeodes fremitans
     Galeodes fumigatus
     Galeodes graecus
     Galeodes granti
     Galeodes gravelyi
     Galeodes gromovi
     Galeodes hellenicus
     Galeodes indicus
     Galeodes inermis
     Galeodes insidiator
     Galeodes interjectus
     Galeodes intermedius
     Galeodes interritus
     Galeodes karunensis
     Galeodes kermanensis
     Galeodes koeiena
     Galeodes kozlovi
     Galeodes kraepelini
     Galeodes krausi
     Galeodes lacertosus
     Galeodes laevipalpis
     Galeodes laniator
     Galeodes lapidosus
     Galeodes lawrencei
     Galeodes levyi
     Galeodes limitatus
     Galeodes lindbergi
     Galeodes litigiosus
     Galeodes loeffleri
     Galeodes luteipalpis
     Galeodes lybicus
     Galeodes lycaonis
     Galeodes macmahoni
     Galeodes marginatus
     Galeodes mauryi
     Galeodes medusae
     Galeodes melanalis
     Galeodes melanopalpus
     Galeodes minimus
     Galeodes minitor
     Galeodes mongolicus
     Galeodes montivagans
     Galeodes mosconibronzii
     Galeodes nachitschevanicus
     Galeodes nigrichelis
     Galeodes notatus
     Galeodes olivieri
     Galeodes orientalis
     Galeodes pallescens
     Galeodes palpalis
     Galeodes parvus
     Galeodes perotis
     Galeodes philippovi
     Galeodes philippoviczi
     Galeodes pinkasi
     Galeodes pirzadanus
     Galeodes pococki
     Galeodes przevalskii
     Galeodes pugnator
     Galeodes pusillus
     Galeodes rapax
     Galeodes reimoseri
     Galeodes revestitus
     Galeodes rhamses
     Galeodes rhodicola
     Galeodes roeweri
     Galeodes rufogriseus
     Galeodes rufulus
     Galeodes ruptor
     Galeodes sabulosus
     Galeodes sarpolensis
     Galeodes schach
     Galeodes schendicus
     Galeodes scythicus
     Galeodes sedulus    
     Galeodes sejugatus
     Galeodes separandus
     Galeodes setipes
     Galeodes setulosus
     Galeodes signatus
     Galeodes simplex
     Galeodes smirnovi
     Galeodes somalicus
     Galeodes spectabilis
     Galeodes spinipalpis
     Galeodes starmuehlneri
     Galeodes striatipalpis
     Galeodes subbarbarus
     Galeodes subsimilis
     Galeodes sulfuripes
     Galeodes sulphureopilosus
     Galeodes tangkharzarensis
     Galeodes tarabulus
     Galeodes taurus
     Galeodes testaceus
     Galeodes theodori
     Galeodes tillmani
     Galeodes timbuktus
        Galeodes t. brunneipalpis
        Galeodes t. timbuktus
     Galeodes toelgi
     Galeodes trichotichnus
     Galeodes trinkleri
     Galeodes tripolitanus
     Galeodes truculentus
     Galeodes turanus
     Galeodes turcmenicus
     Galeodes turkestanus
     Galeodes turki
     Galeodes tuxeni
     Galeodes uzbecus
     Galeodes veemi
     Galeodes venator
     Galeodes ventralis
     Galeodes versicolor
     Galeodes viridipilosus
     Galeodes vittatus
     Galeodes wadaicus
     Galeodes zarudnyi 

Genus Galeodopsis
Genus Galeodumus
Genus Gluviema
Genus Othoes
Genus Paragaleodes
Genus Paragaleodiscus
Genus Roeweriscus
Genus Zombis

Family Gylippidae
Family Hexisopodidae
Family Karschiidae
Family Melanoblossidae
Family Mummuciidae
Family Rhagodidae

 Family Solpugidae
Catalog of the Solifugae

Galeodes araneoides (Pallas 1772)


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Type localities:
of Phalangium araneoides: unknown.
of Solpuga arachnodes: near Volgograd (as "Russia australia prope Zaricin"), Volgograd, Russia.
of Solpuga persica: Iran (as Persia).
of Galeodes hector: Izmir (as Smyrna), Izmir, Turkey; S. of Izmir (as Smyrna), Izmir, Turkey; Bodrum (as Budrum), Mugla, Turkey/
Distribution: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Kazakhstan, Russia (Volgograd), Syria, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine.

Phalangium araneoides Pallas, 1772: 37, plate III figs 7-9; Fabricius, 1781: 549; Fabricius, 1787: 347; Fabricius, 1793: 431.
Galeodes araneoides
(Pallas): Olivier, 1791b: 579, 580; Lamarck, 1801: 176 (as aranoides [sic]); Lamarck, 1802 61 (as aranoides [sic]); Latreille, 1806: 133-136; Olivier, 1807: 443, plate 42 fig. 3; Latreille, 18lO: 425; Leach, 1814: 418; Lamarck, 1818: 79; Dumeril, 1820: 76; Duges and Edwards, 1836: plate 20 figs 1, 1a-f, plate 20 bis figs la, 1a-b; Guerin-Meneville, 1838b: 11, plate 4 figs 4a-d; Lamarck, 1838: 106-107; Lamarck, 1839: 300-301; C .L. Koch, 1842: 353; Gervais, 1844: 88, plate 26 fig. 1; C .L. Koch, 1847: 83-85, fig. 1475; C .L. Koch, 1850: 97; Dufour, 1861: 383-384; Wood, 1863: unnumbered fig. on p. 679; Butler, 1873: 418-419; Pavesi, 1876: 73; C L. Koch, 1878: 38; Simon, 1879a: 99-100; Simon, 1879c: 77; Croneberg, 1887: 163-164, figs 1-2; Pocock, 1889b: 118; Walter, 1889: 1096; Birula, 1890b: 66-68, figs 11-12; Birula, 1892: 687-688; Simon, 1892: 7; Birula, 1893: 82-87; Hansen, 1893: 185, 187; Birula, 1895a: 293-324, figs 1-12; Kraepelin, 1899a: 202; Kraepelin, 1899b: 376; Kraepelin, 1901: 18; Borner, 1902: fig. 3; Birula, 1905a: 405-406; Birula, 1905b: 251-252; Werner, 1905: 113; Tullgren, 1907a: 1-2; Kraepelin, 1908c: 211; Birula, 1912: 296-312; Penther, 1913: 107; Birula, 1924: 227-235; Birula, 1925: 192-200, figs 2, 3b, 4b, 5b, 6b; Morin, 1928: 85; Birula, 1929a: 161-168; Birula, 1929b: 282; Pavlovsky and Stein, 1930a: 158-163, fig. 1; Pawlowsky and Stein, 1930b: 8-15, figs 1-4; Pavlovsky, 1932: fig. 10; Roewer, 1932: figs 20, 35-37, 45, 47-49, 80; Kastner, 1933-1935: figs 268, 294, 309, 321, 326, 338, 341, 354-355, 358-359; Roewer, 1933: figs 193-201,207-209, 315-316,319; Roewer, 1934: 526-527, fig. 360; Birula, 1938: 116-118, figs 74b, 75a-b; Roewer, 1941: 159; Vachon, 1945: 476,477,480, figs 5-9; Vinogradov, 1948: 293, fig. 187 (as Galeodes arenaeoides [sic]); Kobakhidze, 1949: 300; Millot and Vachon, 1949: fig. 249; Crome, 1956: fig. 60; Roewer, 1959a: 35; Levy and Shulov, 1964: 109; Savory, 1964a: fig. 187 (as aranoides [sic]); Cloudsley-Thompson, 1968: 108, 110, 114; Cloudsley-Thompson, 1977: 67; Savory, 1977: fig. lO 1; Aliev, 1978: 19; Aliev, 1981: 10; Aliev and Gadzhiev, 1983a: 44-45; Aliev, 1984a: 22; Gromov and Kopdykbaev, 1994: 22.
Solpuga arachnodes
Lichtenstein, 1796: 217; Lichtenstein, in Lichtenstein and Herbst, 1797: 37, plate I fig. 2 (synonymized by Latreille, 1806: 133).
Solpuga persica
Lichtenstein, in Lichtenstein and Herbst, 1797: 35-37; Gervais, 1844: 88; Butler, 1873: 418 (tentatively synonymised by Simon, 1879a: 99).
Solpuga araneoides
(Pallas): Leach, 1815: 392.
Galeodes intrepidus Dufour: Kittary, 1848: 309-369, figs 1-18 (misidentification).Galeodes arabs C .L. Koch: Butler, 1873: 418 (misidentification).
Galeodes araneoides
(Pallas)?: Bernard, 1893b: 441, fig. 7.
Galeodes hector
Pocock, 1895a: 78-79 (tentatively synonymised by Kraepelin, 1901: 18).
Galeodes araneoides araneoides
(Pallas): Kraepelin, 1899a: 202 (as "G. araneoides typicus"); Kraepelin, 1901: 19; Heymons, 1902: 4-5; Birula, 1905b: 251-252; Zilch, 1946: 142.
Galeodes
aff. araneoides (Pallas): Kraepelin, 1899b: 376.
Galeodes araneoides persicus
(Lichtenstein): Birula, 1905b: 252. Not Solpuga araneoides (Olivier): Audouin, 1826: 176-178, fig. 7; Audouin, 1829: 416-419, fig. 7 (misidentifications; see Galeodes arabs C .L. Koch).

Types:    .

Original description ():

Translation: .

Subsequent accounts:

Roewer 1934, pp. 515-516, 534, 535:

Schlüssel der ♂♂ (inkl. Diagnose):
1". Beweglicher Finger mit 2 oder 3 Zwischenzähnen..................................................................8
8'. Beweglicher Finger mit 2 Zwischenzähnen.............................................................................9
9'. Unbeweglicher Finger mit 1 Zwischenzahn..........................................................................10
10". Metatarsus der Pedipalpen ventral mit Zylinderborsten.........................................................l5
15'.

Opisthosoma ventral ohne nachweisbare Ctenidien..............................................................16

16'.

Sohlenhaare des 4. Tarsus spindelförmig (typ. II)................................................................17

17'.

Färbung rostgelb, Cheliceren und Propeltidium bisweilen gebräunt, Opisthosoma dorsal mit schwarzer Mittelbinde oder ganz schwarz (var.: turkestanus); Körperlänge 31-34 mm; Südost-Rußland, Transkaukasien, Kleinasien, West-Persien, Mesopotamien, Transkaspien.. ..................................................................................................................1. G. araneoides

Schlüssel der ♀♀ (inkl. Diagnose):
1". Beweglicher Finger mit 2, 3 oder 4 Zwischenzähnen....................................../.....................12
12'. Beweglicher Finger mit 2 Zwischenzähnen...........................................................................13
13'.

Unbeweglicher Finger mit 1 Zwischenzahn...........................................................................14

14". Opisthosoma ventral ohne wahrnehmbare Ctenidien.............................................................15
15". Opisthosoma dorsal mit deutlicher, selten unscharfer dunkler Mittelbinde..............................18
Asiatische und südosteuropäische Arten..............................................................................22
18".
22". Asiatische Arten einschl. Südost- Rußland...........................................................................23
23". Vorderasien einschl. Iran und Südost-Rußland.....................................................................24
24". Körperlänge bis 48 mm.......................................................................................................25
25". Körperlänge bis 33 mm; Malleoli einförmig weißgelb............................................................26
26'. Körper (Opisthosoma) ventral einfarbig rostgelb bis blaßgelb; Körperlänge bis 31 mm; Südost-Rußland, Transkaukasien, Kleinasien, West-Persien, Mesopotamien, Transkaspien..................
...................................................................................................................1. G. araneoides

1. Galeodes araneoides Pallas 1772 S. 37 (sub Phalangiurn); weitere Lit. siehe Kraepelin 1901 S. 18 (inkl. Synonyma); Pocock 1899 S. 402 (= G. truculentus); Birula 1892-93 S. 82 und 1905 S. 251 (part.) u. S. 252.
Wir rechnen hierher nur diejenigen unter G. araneoides auct. beschriebenen Formen, die am unbeweglichen Finger 1 und am beweglichen Finger 2 Zwischenzähne haben. - Kraepelin 1899 S. 202 und 1901 S. 19 unterscheidet yon der typischen Art noch drei Unterarten, von denen wir auch nur G. a. turkestanus hier einschließen. G. a. discolor Kraepelin halten wir nach Bezahnung und Färbung für eine eigene Art (vgl. dort S. 530 Nr. 32). - Birulas 1905 S. 252 ausgesprochene Vermutung, daß G. truculentus Pocock synonym mit G. araneoides Pall. sei, können wir am Typus Pococks bestätigen, dessen und am unbeweglichen Finger jederseits 1 und am beweglichen Finger jederseits 2 Zwischenzähne besitzen (teilweise im im Gegensatz zu Pococks Angaben!); das hat am Metatarsus der Pedipalpen Zylinderborsten, das nicht, opisthosomale Ctenidien fehlen dem , dessen Sohlenhaare am 4. Tarsus dieselbe Form haben wie bei G. araneoides. Wir müssen demnach G. truculentus Pocock (,) dem G. araneoides Pall. unserer Diagnose artgleich setzen.

,- Süd-Rußland (Sarepta usw.), Kleinasien (am Urmia-See, Illany Dagh), Transkaukasien (Tiflis, Aberbeidjan, Apscheron, Wolowodow, am Aras-Fluß), Mesopotamien (Tell Halaf), Syrien (Amman), Persien (Prov. Irak Adjmi, Teheran, Provo Gilan), Transkaspien (Bochara, Derbent, Mangyschlak, Golodnaja-Steppe); Afghanistan (Herat), Turkestan (Neu-Margelan) - (vidi 35 , 31 ).

Translation: .

Schlüssel der ♂♂ (inkl. Diagnose):
1". Movable finger with 2 or 3 intermediate teeth........................................................................8
8'. Movable finger with 2 intermediate teeth...............................................................................9
9'. Fixed finger with 1  intermediate tooth.................................................................................10
10". Metatarsus of the pedipalp ventrally with cylinder-bristles.....................................................l5
15'.

Opisthosoma ventrally without detectable ctenidia...............................................................16

16'.

Hairs on the soles of the 4. Tarsus spindle-shaped (Type II)................................................17

17'.

Coloration rust-yellow, Chelicerae and Propeltidium bisweilen gebräunt, Opisthosoma dorsal with black Median band or wholly black (var.: turkestanus); Body length 31-34 mm; southeast Russia, South Caucasus, Asia Minor, West Persia, Mesopotamia, Trans-Caspien...
..................................................................................................................1
. G. araneoides

Key to females (including diagnoses):
1". Movable finger with 2, 3 or 4 intermediate teeth...................................................................12
12'. Movable Finger with 2 Intermediate teeth.............................................................................13
13'.

Fixed finger with 1 Intermediate tooth..................................................................................14

14". Opisthosoma ventrally without discernable ctenidia ..............................................................15
15". Opisthosoma dorsally with pronounced, seldom indistinct darker Middle band......................18
18". Asian and south European Species.......................................................................................22
22". Asian Species including Southeast-Russia.............................................................................23
23". Middle East including Iran and Southeast-Russia..................................................................24
24". Body length to 48 mm.........................................................................................................25
25". Body length as far as 33 mm; Malleoli dull pale yellow..........................................................26
26'. Body (Opisthosoma) ventrally monochromatic russet to pale yellow; Body length up to 31 mm; Southeast-Russia, Transkaukasien, Asia Minor, West-Persia, Mesopotamia, Transkaspien................................................................................................1. G. araneoides

Distribution: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Kazakhstan, Russia (Volgograd), Syria, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine

 

 

 



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