The Arachnid Order Solifugae



Phylogeny of the Solifugae
Keys to FamiliesFamily AmmotrechidaeFamily Ceromidae
Family Daesiidae
Family Eremobatidae

     pallipes group
          Eremobates actenidia
          Eremobates ascopulatus
          Eremobates clarus
          Eremobates corpink
          Eremobates ctenidiellus
          Eremobates hodai
          Eremobates icenogelei
          Eremobates legalis
          Eremobates mormonus
          Eremobates scaber
          Eremobates similis
          Eremobates socal
          Eremobates zinni














Family Galeodidae
Family Gylippidae
Family Hexisopodidae
Family Karschiidae
Family Melanoblossidae
Family Mummuciidae
Family RhagodidaeFamily Solpugidae
Catalog of the Solifugae












Eremobates scaber (Kraepelin 1899)

Datames scaber Kraepelin 1899b: 243, fig. 19.
Eremobates scaber (Kraepelin): Kraepelin 1901a: 124-125, fig. 91; Muma, 1970a: 12, fig. 10; Muma, 1976: 15; Muma, 1989: 8-9; Scudder, 1994: 10;
►Brookhart and Cushing, 2004: 288-291, figs 31, 42, 47, 52; ►Brookhart and Brookhart, 2006: 314.
Eremostata scabra (Kraepelin): Roewer, 1934: 574, fig. 324z.
Eremobates gladiolus Muma, 1951: 57-58, figs 58-60; Gering, 1956: 50; Muma, 1970a: 11-12; Dondale, 1979: 251; Muma, 1989: 9; Scudder, 1994: 10 (synonymized by Brookhart and Cushing, 2004: 288).
Not Eremobates scaber (Kraepelin): Muma, 1951: 52-55, figs 44-53 (misidentification, see Eremobates septentrionis Muma).

HOLOTYPE: Of Datames scaber Kraepelin 1899: UNITED STATES: "Washington Territory", ♀ (holotype) (E. Simon collection, No. 9137, MNHN); of Eremobates gladiolus: UNITED STATES: Oregon: Wasco County - (45º11'N, 121º04'W), 19 July 1934 (J.M. Pearson), ♂ (holotpye) (AMNH).

Original description:
Kraepelin 1899b: 243, fig. 19

Brookhart and Cushing, 2004: 288-291, figs 31, 42, 47, 52:

Males: Chelicera, propeltidium and appendages dusky yellow with the following markings: propeltidium blotched dusky purple except for a medial lighter dusky ovoid region (Fig. 47). Some specimens have light violet markings on distal third of leg IV and a chelicera with a dorsal and two lateral dusky purple stripes, abdomen dusky grey.
Chelicera as Muma (1951, fig. 58). FF severely crimped in ectal view (Fig. 31), MF with PT large, AT small, sharp, triangulate, 2 IT, 1st IT separated from PT, cleft under AT, mesal tooth absent, FT graded I, III, II, IV, FT III triangulate and large as FT I, FL/FW equal to or slightly wider, flattened apical plumose bristle occupies 75–80 percent of mesoventral groove, palpal metatarsus with a scopula of 33–80 rounded papillae; 2 short, thin to flat ctenidia (Fig. 42).
Male measurements(5): Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, (WSU). Total length 18.5–25.0, chelicera length 5.00–6.72, chelicera width 2.64–3.04, propeltidium length 2.83–3.33, propeltium width 3.96–4.38, palpus length 15.5–18.0, 1st leg length 13.0–16.0, 4th leg length 22.0–26.0.
Ratios: A/CP 5.17–6.73, CL/CW 1.84–2.40, FL/FW 0.82–1.07, FW/FFW 1.28–1.55, CW/FFW 4.86–7.08, PL/PW 0.70–0.80.
Coloration same as males, chelicera typical of species; FF with PT and MT large, a small AT, two IT between PT and MT, one small IT posterior to the AT; MF with large PT, pointed AT; two small IT, the proximal of which is larger; posterior IT separate from primary tooth; no cleft under AT of MF, MST indistinct or absent. Genital operculum as in fig. 10, p. 19, (Muma 1970) with short, thin arms, medial margin lobed, gently recurved wings ending in a curved posterior margin (Fig. 52). One specimen with 57 rounded papillae on metatarsus of palpus, the rest had none; two tiny hairlike ctenidia were present on one specimen, the rest had none.
Female allotype:
Total length 19.0, chelicera length 6.4, cheliceral width 3.1, propeltidium length 2.9, propeltidium width 4.16, palpus length 16.0, first leg length 11.0, fourth leg length 22.5.
Ratios: A/CP 5.32, CL/CW 2.06, PL/PW 7.00, GOL/GOW 0.72. Female measurements (3): Length 19.0–23.0, chelicera length 6.04–7.50, chelicera width 2.29–3.29, propeltidium length 2.58–3.30, propeltidium width 3.96–4.58, palpus length 14.0–17.0, first leg length 11.0–15.0, fourth leg length 18.0–25.0. Ratios: A/CP 4.86–5.26, CL/CW 2.28–2.95. PL/PW 0.65–0.73, GOL/GOW 0.50–0.67.


PUBLISHED RECORds: UNITED STATES: Oregon: Washington County, Maupin (45º10'N, 121º04'W), July 1934, J. M. Pierson (♂, AMNH); Umatilla County, Umatilla (45º55'N, 119º20'W), 24 June 1882, S. Henshaw (♀, AMNH). Washington: Columbia County - Starbuck (46º31'N, 118º07'W), 4 July 1938 (C.S. Brenner), ♀ (allotype of Eremobates gladiolus Muma) (AMNH). Washington: Benton County, Hanford Nuclear Site (46º32'N, 119º31'W), 23 July–8 August 1999, Rich Zack (8 ♂, 3 ♀, WSU); Whitman County, Wawsweiko Peak (46º32'N, 118º79'W), 27 July 1981, no collector data (♂, WSU). CANADA: British Columbia: Osyoos, Haynes Ecological Reserve (49º07'N, 119º40'W), 19 June 1986, S.G. Cannings (2 ♂, Spencer Museum, University of British Columbia); 14 June–3 August 1987 (♂, ♀, ABU); Osyoos, Mount Kobau, 10–33 July 1991, D. Blades & C. Maier (♂, Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria); Penticton (49º10'N, 119º31'W), 1973, W. D. Charles (♂, ABU); 5 July 1973, M. Redivo (♂, ABU); 27 August 1972, Jose Matias (♂, ABU); Summerland (49º36'N, 119º40'W), 3 July 1928, T. B. Kurta (♀, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto); August–November 1982, W. D. Charles (♂, ABU); Keremeos (49º129N, 119º509W), 6 September 1960, Philip Desjardins (♀, Spencer Museum, University of British Columbia); Oliver (49º11'N, 119º33'W), J. Slack (♀, Spencer Museum, University of British Columbia).

nOTES: Brookhart and Cushing, 2004

Males: Most easily identified by the strongly upturned or ‘‘crimped’’ portion of the fixed finger of the male chelicera (Fig. 31). Two short, thin to flat ctenidia. It is separated from E. clarus by the shape of fixed finger and distinctive female genital operculum.  Muma (1951) described E. scaber using a sample population of both males and females from a geographic area extending from Washington state to the deserts of Arizona. He remarked as to the variability of the species and suggested that it might include two or more species. Unfortunately his drawings of the female genital operculum (1951, p. 53, fig. 53) were obviously of another species. After viewing Kraepelin’s female type from Washington Territory, Muma (1970) described E. scaber based solely on the type and indicated that males were unknown. In the same publication (Muma 1970) used his 1951 description of E. scaber to establish the new species, E. septentrionis (Muma 1970). Muma’s (1951) description of E. gladiolus listed the male holotype from Maupin, Oregon, the female paratype from Starbucks, Washington, and paratypes from Umatilla, Oregon and Wishrum, Washington, all in the Columbia River Basin. Muma uses only a slight difference in the coloration on leg IV to differentiate the two species. After examination of material from Hanford Test Site in Washington state and Canadian samples from the Okanogan Valley, and the subsequent examination of the types of E. scaber and E. gladiolus, we have synonymized the two species under E. scaber based on the shape of the female genital operculum and the male fixed finger. The collection sites indicate a range that encompasses the Columbian River Basin, and the Okanogan Valley in northern Washington, USA and the Okanogan Valley, southern British Columbia, Canada which are primarily high desert shrub communities (USEPA 1986).

Brookhart and Brookhart (2006) included the species in an annotated checklist of continental North American Solifugae.






































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