The Arachnid Order Solifugae



Phylogeny of the Solifugae
Keys to FamiliesFamily AmmotrechidaeFamily Ceromidae
Family Daesiidae
Family Eremobatidae

     pallipes group
          Eremobates actenidia
          Eremobates ascopulatus
          Eremobates clarus
          Eremobates corpink
          Eremobates ctenidiellus
          Eremobates hodai
          Eremobates icenogelei
          Eremobates legalis
          Eremobates mormonus
          Eremobates scaber
          Eremobates similis
          Eremobates socal
          Eremobates zinni














Family Galeodidae
Family Gylippidae
Family Hexisopodidae
Family Karschiidae
Family Melanoblossidae
Family Mummuciidae
Family RhagodidaeFamily Solpugidae
Catalog of the Solifugae




















Eremobates ctenidiellus Muma 1951

Eremobates ctenidiellus Muma, 1951: 52, 56, 57, figs 58-60; ►Muma, 1962: 3; ►Muma, 1963: 1; ►Muma, 1970: 10; Muma and Allred, 1971: 165; Brookhart, 1972: 33; ►Muma, 1976: 15; ►Muma 1986: 19; ►Muma, 1987: 20; ►Vázquez Rojas, 1995: 30; Vázquez Rojas, 1996e: 76, ►Brookhart and Cushing 2004: 291-293, figs 32, 38, 48, 55; ►Brookhart and Brookhart, 2006: 313.

HOLOTYPE:  UNITED STATES: Utah: Sevier County - 3.2 km west of Glenwood  (38º45'N, 111º59'W) 30 June 1940 (Gertsch & Hook), 1 ♂ (holotype) (AMNHS).

Original description:
Muma, 1951: 57, figs 58-60:

MALES: Total length, 18.0 to 21.0 mm.

Chelicerae 4.8- 5.8 mm. 2.2-2.6 mm.

2.4- 2.6


Palpi 16.0-19.0  
1st legs 14.0-16.0  
4th legs 22.0-24.0  

Holotype, larger measurements.
Coloration and markings similar to those of scaber (Kraepelin) except that the dusky areas are fainter and less distinct.
Structure similar to that of scaber. Fixed finger of chelicerae more slender so that the fondal notch is nearly one and one-half times as wide as the base of the finger. Propeltidium wider than long by a ratio of 1 to 1.5.
Ctenidia on first post-spiracular sternite of abdomen two in number, but they are fine, hair-like, and scarcely distinguishable from the other setae clothing the abdomen. One specimen from Colorado had one distinct ctenidium and a reduced scopula.

FEMALES: Total length, 19.0 to 24.0 mm.

Chelicerae 4.6- 6.2 mm. 1.8-2.4 mm.

2.0- 2.4


Palpi 13.0-16.0  
1st legs 11.0-14.0  
4th legs 18.0-24.0  

Allotype, smaller measurements.
Coloration and structure nearly identical with those of scaber (Kraepelin). Specific differences occur in the opercula of the genital segment of the abdomen. Figure 60 shows the opercula of the allotype, which apparently was taken in copula with the holotype. Other females do not have the opercula widely separated.

Figs. 58-60. Eremobates ctenidiellus Muma.  Redrawn from Muma (1951). 58. ectal view of right male chelicera; 59. male abdominal ctenidia; 60. ventral view of female genital opercula.


Brookhart and Cushing, 2004: 291-293, figs 32, 38, 48, 55:

Males: Muma’s (1951) description is accurate. Appendages pale yellow, propeltidium dusky, violet brown except for a medial pale yellow ovoid region (Fig. 48), abdomen dusky. Chelicera as in fig. 58, p.56, Muma (1951). A thin FF slightly crimped in ectal view, MF with large PT and smaller slightly crumpled AT, no cleft anterior to AT, IT in notch of PT. MST tiny to absent, fondal teeth typical (Fig. 32). Palpus with 50–100 rounded, white papillae on the metatarsal scopula, ctenidia 0–2 thin, hair-like setae (Fig. 38).
Male holotype:
Total length 22.0, chelicera length 5.6, chelicera width 3.2, propeltidium length 3.0, propeltidium width 4.0, palpus 18.0, 1st leg 15.0, 4th leg 23.0. Ratios: A/CP 6.36, CL/CW 3.20, PL/PW 0.75, FL/FW 1.01, FW/FFW 1.25, CW/FFW 5.70. Male measurements (5): Total length 17.0–23.0, chelicera length 4.6–6.1, chelicera width 2.2–3.2, propeltidium length 2.4–3.2, propeltidium width 3.3–4.4, palpus length 15.0–18.5, first leg length 13.0–15.0, fourth leg length 17.5–25.0. Ratios: A/CP 6.15–7.23, CL/CW 1.64–2.34, PL/PW 0.58–0.80, FL/FW 0.80–1.00, FW/FFW 2.67–3.75, CW/FFW 5.50–7.00.
Coloration the same as in the males. Chelicera typical of species; MF with posterior IT in notch of PT, no cleft under AT, MST indistinct to absent. Genital operculum as in fig. 60, p. 56 Muma (1951) with short, broad arms, long medial margin with a dark chitinized area midway, very slightly undulate, wings short, posterior margin slightly curved (Fig. 55). No papillae on metatarsus of palpus; two tiny hairlike ctenidia were present on one specimen, the rest had none.
Female allotype:
total length 19.0, chelicera length 4.6, chelicera width 1.8, propeltidium length 2.5, propeltidium width 3.6, palpus 13.0, first leg length 11.5, fourth leg length 21.5. Ratios: A/CP 6.60, GOL/GOW 0.75. Female measurements (3): Total length 18.5–21.0, chelicera length 4.6–6.7, chelicera width 2.0–2.4, propeltidium length 2.1–3.0, propeltidium width 3.2–4.2, palpus length 11.5–14.0, first leg length 10.5–13.0, fourth leg length 20.5–22.0. Ratios: A/CP 5.05–6.70, CL/CW 2.30–2.79, PL/PW 0.58–0.71, GOL/GOW 0.72–0.82.

Figs. 32, 38, 48,  55.  Eremobates ctenidiellus Muma, redrawn from Brookhart and Cushing (2004): 32. Ectal view male right chelicerae; 38. Ventral view of male ctenidia; 48. Dorsal view male propeltidia; 55. Ventral view female genital opercula.

DISTRIBUTION: UNITED STATES: Utah, Colorado.  Brookhart and Cushing (2004) suggested that the range of collected specimens indicates an area within the central regions of the Colorado Plateau.  Muma (1951), at the time of the original description, reported specimens from California and Oregon, and later (Muma 1962) reported specimens from Nevada and Washington. Muma (1963) again reported specimens (3 females) from Nevada. Muma (1970, 1976) reported the range as California, Colorado, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington,  and Mexico, although he cited no Mexican records.   Muma (1986, 1987) included the species in his list of families, genera, and species previously recorded from Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies (again without citing any collection records). Vázquez Rojas (1995) included this species in a list of the solifuges of Mexico, also without citing any collection records.

PUBLISHED RECORds: UNITED STATES: California: Siskiyou County - Sisson [= Mount Shasta], 30 June [year?] (J. H. Emerton), one male, one female. Nevada: Nye County - Mercury, 30 June 1960 (Elden Beck), one female. Oregon:  Jefferson County - Gateway, 3-6 July 1933 (J. M. Pierson, [specimen?]; Josephine County - Wonder, 1 July 1922 (C. D. Duncan), one male. Utah: Emery County -Castle Dale (39º12'N, 111º01'W), 26 June 1951 (D.E. Beck), 1 ♀ (BYU); 7 July 1975 (D.M. Allred), 1 ( BYU); Grand County - 32 Km west of Glade Park, coordinates unknown, 18 June 1951 (no collectior data), 1 (CU); Kane County - Zion National Park, 4-5 July 1932 (Gertsch), one male, one female (repository?); Salt Lake County - Fort Douglas, 26 May 1934 (W. Ivie), one male; Sanpete County - Manti (39º16'N, 111º38'W), 21 June 1979 (Ryan Olson), 1 (USU); Sevier County - 3.2 km west of Glenwood  (38º45'N, 111º59'W), 30 June 1940 (Gertsch & Hook), 1 ♀ (allotype) (AMNHS); Richfield, (388469N, 1128059W), 9 July 1963 (G. F. Knowlton), 1 (BYU). Colorado: Mesa County - Colorado National Monument (39º03'N, 108º41'W), 15 July 1962, C.J. McCoy (, CU); 21 June 1963, B. Vogel & C.J. McCoy (, CU); 29 June 1973, C.J. McCoy (, CU); 3 July 1973, C.J. McCoy (, CU); Grand Junction (39º03'N, 108º33'W), 26 May–26 August 1998, Jack & Irene Brookhart (4 , DMNS); Washington: Klickitat Country - Spearfish, June 1954 (R. Crabtree), one male.

nOTES: Muma (1951) in a key to males of the scaber group, ascribes the following characters to this species: Metatarsus of palpus with a scopula, abdominal ctenidia two in number, straight, needle-like, indistinct, tubular. He expressed his belief that this species is quite closely related to scaber (Kraepelin) [misidentified; = E. ascopulatus Muma] and is more easily separated in the male sex. He also stated that there are paratypes in U.S. National Museum, the Museum of Comparative Anatomy, the University of Utah Museum (USU), and at Cornell University, but according to Brookhart and Cushing (2004), there are no paratypes at USU. Muma (1970) reported that males of this species are distinguished from the closely related E. septentrionis [= E. ascopulatus Muma] by having 2 hairlike ctenidia, a wider fondal notch, a more slender fixed cheliceral finger, and less distinct dusky markings.  Females, he noted, have distinctive opercula. Brookhart and Cushing (ibid.) gathered measurements from specimens collected at various times in Colorado National Monument and adjacent areas.  They noted that four males, but no females, were found by Brookhart in pitfall traps during the summer of 1998, and suggested that the range of collected specimens indicates an area within the central regions of the Colorado Plateau.  Brookhart and Cushing (ibid.) characterized this as a pale species, with the following features: 0–2 very thin hairlike ctenidia; posterior IT of male and female MF in the notch of PT; no cleft under AT; female genital operculum distinctive with virtually no modification of the interior edge except for a heavily chitinized region which makes it appear as if there is a spot on the medial edge; fondal notch length equal to width. Brookhart and Brookhart (2006) include the species in an annotated checklist of continental North American solifugae.











































































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