The Arachnid Order Solifugae



Phylogeny of the Solifugae
Keys to FamiliesFamily AmmotrechidaeFamily Ceromidae
Family Daesiidae
Family Eremobatidae

     pallipes group
          Eremobates actenidia
          Eremobates ascopulatus
          Eremobates clarus
          Eremobates corpink
          Eremobates ctenidiellus
          Eremobates hodai
          Eremobates icenogelei
          Eremobates legalis
          Eremobates mormonus
          Eremobates scaber
          Eremobates similis
          Eremobates socal
          Eremobates zinni














Family Galeodidae
Family Gylippidae
Family Hexisopodidae
Family Karschiidae
Family Melanoblossidae
Family Mummuciidae
Family RhagodidaeFamily Solpugidae
Catalog of the Solifugae




















Eremobates ascopulatus Muma 1951

Eremobates scaber (Kraepelin): ►Muma, 1951: 39, 52-55, figs 2, 13A, 17, 44-53 (misidentification).
Eremobates ascopulatus ►Muma 1951: 52, 59, 60, fig. 69; ►Muma 1962: 3; ►Muma 1970a: 10; ►Muma, 1976: 15; Muma, 1989: 9; ►Brookhart and Cushing, 2004: 295-299, figs 35, 43, 49, 53.
Eremobates septentrionis ►Muma 1970a: 12, 14; Muma and Allred, 1971: 164; Brookhart, 1972: 33; Muma, 1974a: 8; Allred, 1975: 406; ►Muma, 1976: 15; Dondale, 1979: 251; Muma, 1985: fig. 5; Muma and Muma, 1988: 13; Coddington, Larcher and Cokendolpher, 1990: 10 (as Eremobates septentrionalis [sic]) (synonymized by ►Brookhart and Cushing, 2004: 295).
Eremobates flavus ►Muma, 1989: 11-12, figs 7-9 (synonymized by ►Brookhart and Cushing, 2004: 295).
Eremobates consors ►Muma, 1989: 11, figs 5-6 (synonymized by ►Brookhart and Cushing, 2004: 295).

HOLOTYPE:  UNITED STATES:  Utah: Sevier County - Richfield, 20 June 1930 (W.J. Gertsch), ♂ (holotype) (AMNH).

Eremobates septentrionis Muma 1970:
UNITED STATES:  Utah: Salt Lake County - East Bench, Salt Lake City, 27 August 1931 (W. J. Gertsch),  ♂ (holotype) (AMNH). 
Eremobates consors
Muma 1989:
UNITED STATES:  Nevada: Douglas County - Minden, VII-II-1983 (D.A. Ball), ♀ (holotype)  (Code #83H30-2 FSCA).
Eremobates flavus Muma 1989:
UNITED STATES:  Nevada: Washoe County - Reno, 7 July 1972 (W.F. Hendrick), ♂ (holotype) (FSCA).

Original description:
Muma, 1951: 60, fig. 69:

MALE HOLOTYPE: Total length, 23.0 mm.

Chelicerae 5. 9 mm 2.8 mm



Palpi 20.0  
1st legs 17.0  
4th legs 23.0 (tarsi missing)  

Coloration similar to that of scaber (Kraepelin) except that the legs and palpi are nearly unmarked. There is a faint dusky bar on the anterior face of the femora of the fourth leg at the distal end. The dusky covering of the propeltidium is heaviest just behind the exterior lobes.
Structure same as in scaber except there is no scopula on the mesoventral surface of the metatarsus of the palpus, the propeltidium is wider than long by a ratio of 1 to 1.7, and the fondal notch is noticeably deeper than wide.

Fig. 69.  Eremobates ascopulatus Muma, ectal view of right male chelicera.  Redrawn from Muma 1951.

uma 1951: 39, 52-55, figs 1, 2, 13A, 17, 44-53 (misidentified as Eremobates scaber (Kraepelin)):

MALES: Total length, 14.0 to 22.0 mm.

Chelicerae 4.0-6.4 mm 1.9-3.0 mm



Palpi 13.0-19.0  
1st legs 11.0-16.0  
4th legs 18.0-25.0  

Coloration in alcohol light yellow to rusty yellow, with dusky purplish markings as follows: chelicerae with one lateral and two dorsal dusky stripes each; eye tubercle dark; propeltidium dusky, except for a median longitudinal stripe the width of the eye tubercle, and darker on the lateral margin; mesopeltidium, metapeltidium, and abdominal tergites dark; distal end of femur, entire length of tibia and metatarsus, and proximal end of tarsus of palpus dusky on dorsal and anterior surfaces; distal end of femora, entire length of tibiae, and proximal end of metatarsi of legs dusky on dorsal and anterior surfaces. Leg markings are indistinct in old alcoholic material and freshly molted specimens. Malleoli white.
Dentition of chelicerae variable but following the general pattern shown in figures 44, 45, and 47. Movable finger with a large principal tooth, a low flattened anterior tooth, two intermediate teeth of which the proximal is larger, and a small indistinct mesal tooth. On some specimens there is a low rounded process distad of the anterior tooth, and the distal intermediate tooth is minute or missing. Fixed finger typical of group; basal notch in dorsal view occupying from one-third to one-half of length of finger, in lateral view finger is lightly bent upward at the distal edge of the notch. Fondal teeth occurring in two rows of four each that are graded in size I, III, II, IV. Fourth fondal teeth scarcely distinguishable from dentate socket margin of movable finger. Fondal notch U-shaped but sharply flattened on its dorsal margin, somewhat wider than the base of the fixed finger, about as wide as deep and usually bearing two or three minute denticules on its ventral margin.
Mesal groove of fixed finger a deep, parallel-sided slot that widens abruptly on the basal quarter of the finger into an oval concavity that extends posteriorly beyond the base of the finger. Flagellum complex typical of genus, with the apical plumose bristle shown in figure 46 not covering the distal third of the mesoventral groove. Mesal setae of movable finger plumose on the proximal half of the finger near the dorsal margin and simple distally.
Eye tubercle situated on the anterior margin of propeltidium. Eyes separated by slightly more than one diameter. Propeltidium wider than long by a ratio of 1 to 1.4.
Metatarsus, tarsus, and tibia of palpus provided with numerous cylinder bristles, and there is a scopula of 40 to 160 rounded papillae on the mesoventral surface of the distal three-fourths of the metatarsus as shown in figure 48. Metatarsus of palpus about three times as long as tarsus.
First post-spiracular abdominal sternite provided with two straight, flattened, abruptly pointed, widely spaced ctenidia(fig. 49).

FEMALES: Total length, 19.0 to 24.0 mm.





4.4-6.4 mm.

1.9-3.0 mm







1st legs



4th legs



Coloration in alcohol similar to that of males. Markings indistinct on old alcoholic or newly molted specimens.
Dentition of chelicerae as shown in figures 50 and 51. Movable finger with principal and anterior teeth large, two small intermediate teeth the proximal of which is larger, an indication of the distal process of the male, and an indistinct mesal tooth. Fixed finger with principal and medial teeth large, a smaller anterior tooth, two intermediate teeth behind principal tooth, two between principal and medial teeth, and one between medial and anterior teeth that is nearly as large as anterior tooth. Some specimens have one of the intermediate teeth behind the principal tooth minute or missing. Fondal teeth same as in male.
Structure similar to that of the male except there is no scopula on the metatarsus of the palpus and no distinct ctenidia on the first post-spiracular abdominal sternite. Some specimens, as shown in figure 52, have two fine, hair-like trace ctenidia scarcely distinguishable from setal clothing.
Opercula of genital segment as shown in figure 53. Specimens captured in copula have opercula more widely separated. Gravid females also have the opercula somewhat separated.

Figures redrawn from Muma (1951), with shading omitted: Eremobates scaber (Kraepelin) [sensu Muma 1951]. 1. dorsoventral view of female body; 2. lateral view of anterior female peltidia; 13A.  plumose bristles of male flagellum complex; 17. ventral view of male abdomen, showing genital sternite and ctenidia; 44. ectal view of right male cheticera. 45. mesal view of right male chelicera. 46. apical plumose bristle of male flagellum complex. 47. dorsal view of fixed finger of right male chelicera. 48. view of apical segments of right male palpus. 49. male abdominal ctenidia. 50. ectal view of right female chelicera. 51. mesal view of right female chelicera. 52. female abdominal ctenidia. 53. ventral view of female genital opercula. Abbreviations: Aa, anterior arci; As, abdominal sclerite; At, anterior tooth; C, ctenidia; Cb, cylinder bristles; Ch, chelicerae; Fn, fondal notch; Ft, fondal teeth; Gs, genital sternite; It, intermediate teeth; M, malleolus; Mpl, median plagula; Msp, mesopeltidium; Mtp, metapeltidium; Op, operculum; P, peltidium; Pap, parapeltidium; Pp, papilla; Prp, propeltidium; Pt, principal tooth; Sc, scopula; Sp, spiracle.

Muma 1970a: 10, 12, 14:

as Eremobates ascopulatus Muma 1951

DIAGNOSIS: Males are distinguished by the lack of a palpal scopula, the presence of 2 abdominal ctenidia, the deeper.than wide fondal notch, and the pale coloration. Females are unknown.
This species is adequately described by Muma (1951).

as Eremobates septentrionis Muma 1970:

DIAGNOSIS, Females of this species are distinguished from E. scaber by legs and palpi distinctly marked with dusky purple, and less distinct, more posterior inner marginal opercular lobes.  Males have 2 short, flattened abdominal ctenidia and 40-160 papillae in the scopula.
This species is adequately described as E. scaber by Muma (1951).

Muma 1989: 11-12, figs 7-9

as Eremobates consors Muma

FEMALE HOLOTYPE: Total length 21.0 mm.





6.5 mm.

2.5 mm.







1st legs



4th legs


A/CP =5.65


CP =8.5

Species is nearly identical in coloration and markings with scaber, ascopulatus, and clarus; the propeltidium and abdominal tergites are dark, dusky purple as on most species of the group.
Structure similar to other species, except for opercula, figure 5. Cheliceral dentition, figure 6 illustrates ECCS, and is also similar to other females of species group.


Figs. 5,6.   Eremobates consors Muma. 5. Ventral view of female opercula; 6. Ectolateral view of right female chelicera. Redrawn from Muma 1989.

as Eremobates flavus Muma

MALES: Total length 20.0 to 24.0 mm. Holotype - smaller measurement.






2.5-3.0 mm.







1st legs


PW/PL=l. 54

4th legs


A/CP =6.31

    CP =8.0-9.0

Coloration and markings very similar if not identical with those of E. septentrionis except that leg and pal pal markings are either very indistinct or missing.
Structure of species very similar to E. septentrionis except fondal notch of this species more closely approaches equal length and width, and two flattened ctenidia are 1/2 width of segment they cover, figure 7.
FEMALES: Total length 20.0 to 21.0 mm. Allotype larger measurements.





5.8-7.0 mm.

2.5-3.0 mm.







1st legs



4th legs


A/CP =4.93

    CP =8.3-9.5

Coloration and markings of female similar to males and E. septentrionis except that markings are less extensive on chelicerae, peltidia, and abdominal tergites, and very indistinct or missing on palpi and legs.
Structure of females very similar to E. septentrionis. Figure 8 shows chelicerae nearly identical, except possibly for ECCS. Opercula also nearly identical, figure 9.


Figures 7-9. Eremobates flavus Muma. 7. Ventral view of male ctenidia; 8. Ecto-lateral view of right female chelicera; 9. Ventral view of female opercula. Redrawn from Muma 1989.

Brookhart and Cushing, 2004: 295-299, figs 35, 43, 49, 53:

Male: Overall coloration dusky, straw yellow, chelicera with two dusky purple patches dorsally and one laterally, propeltidium tinged dusky purple anteriorly and laterally creating a broad, dusky yellow, ovoid area (Fig. 49), abdomen grey to dark grey, palpal tarsus and metatarsus darker than the other appendages. Occasionally specimens have legs that are dusky at the tibia-femur joint. Some northern Californiaspecimens are darker, particularly the propeltidium and palpus. Male FF only slightly upturned in ectal view, posterior IT separate from PT, small, triangulate AT without a cleft, fondal notch L/W highly variable, MST medium (Fig. 35), 60–80 + palpal papillae on most specimens, two short peg-like ctenidia (Fig. 43).
Male holotype:
Total length 21.0, chelicera length 5.76, chelicera width 2.73, propeltidium length 3.1, propeltidium width 3.8, palpus length 18.0, first leg length 15.0, fourth leg length 23.5. Ratios: A/CP 6.60, CL/CW 2.10, PL/PW 0.81, FL/FW 1.20, FW/FFW 1.38, CW/FFW 6.20. Male measurements (5): Total length 19.5–23.0, chelicera length 5.25–6.13, chelicera width 2.45–2.98, propeltidium length 2.80–2.98, propeltidium width 3.85–4.20, palpus length 16.0–19.5, first leg length 14.5–16.5, fourth leg length 20.0–23.5. Ratios: A/CP 6.27–6.62, CL/CW 1.82–2.19, PL/PW 0.68–0.73, FL/FW 0.74–1.22, FW/FFW 1.25–1.54, CW/FFW 4.86–7.08.
Coloration as in males. Chelicera typical of scaber group. MF with posterior IT in the notch of PT, no cleft anterior to AT. Genital opercula similar to E. ctenidiellus and E. geniculatus with long broad arms, slightly undulate medial margin, short wings, curved posterior margin (Fig. 53). Female measurements (4): Total length 18.5–27.0, chelicera length 5.0–7.6, chelicera width 2.4–3.2, propeltidium length 2.4–3.2, propeltidium width 3.8–5.4, palpus 15.0–19.0, first leg length 10.0–14.5, fourth leg length 20.0–25.0. Ratios: A/CP 4.96–5.90, CL/CW 2.08–2.73, PL/PW 0.55–0.74, GOL/GOW 0.42–0.80.

DISTRIBUTION: Western UNITED STATES.  Brookhart and Cushing (2004), in the most recent treatment of the scaber group, describe Eremobates ascopulatus as having a range that encompasses the Bonneville Basin and Lohantan Basin of northern Utah, Nevada, and northeastern California, noting that it has also been found at the Nevada Test Site (Muma 1963), where it is sympatric with E. zinni.  The published records for E. ascopulatus and its various synonyms include localities in California, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Washington in the United States.  Muma (1970, 1976) also reports the species (as E. septentrionis) as occurring in Canada.   The specimens cited in the published record need to be re-examined to determine the  accuracy of their identification.  If the synonymies and all published records  are accurate, this  is a broadly distributed species..

PUBLISHED RECORds: UNITED STATES: California: Modoc County - Alturas, date? (Jack Hayes), one male (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)] ; Placer County - Lake Tahoe (39º10'N, 120º08'W), no date (Hubbard & Swartz), ♂ (FSCA)[Muma (1951) recorded 1 male as E. scaber (Kraepelin); 11 July 1952 (W.J. Gertsch), ♀ (AMNH); Plumas County - Lake Almanor (408139N, 1218109W), 7 July 1952 (W. J. Gertsch), ♂ (AMNH); 6.4 Km W of Quincy (39º56'N, 120º56'W), 21 June 1949 (J. W. MacSwain), 3 (AMNH) [1 male recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Shasta County - Castella (41º08'N, 122º19'W), 26 July 1935 (W.J. Gertsch), ♀ (AMNH); Sonoma County - location?, date? (Mrs. Bush), one female [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]. Colorado: Mesa Verde, County - Mesa Verde, 14 June 1936 (A. M. Woodbury), one male  (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)].  Idaho: Bear Lake County - Bear Lake Hot Springs, 21 July 1928 (W. J. Gertsch), one female (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)];  Boise County - 8 miles west of Horseshoe Bend, 6 July 1943 (W. Ivie), one male [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Cassia County - location?, 17 July 1939 (collector?), one male (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Custer County - Mackie [sic] = Mackay?, day/month? 1938 (collector?), one female [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; 25 June 1938 (F. B. Bjorkman), one male [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Twin Falls County - Twin Falls, 13 August 1931 (D. E. Fox), one male, one young female(repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; 19 July 1931 (Maurice Melton), one male (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]. Nevada: Clark County - Las Vegas, summer 1932 (John Christensen and J. W. Lugden), one male (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Elko County - 14.5 Km S of Contact, date? (M.H. Muma), ♀ (FSCA); Humbolt County - Jungo, date? (L. L. Stitt), ♀ (allotype of Eremobates flavus Muma 1989) (FSCA); Pershing County - Lovelock (40º10'N, 118º28'W), 22 June 1972 (A.G. Rose), ♀ (FSCA); Washoe County - Reno (39º31'N, 119º48'W), 15 August 1989 (P. C. Martenelli), 2 ♂ (FSCA); 29 May 1940 (collector?), one female (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; 17 August 1941, one female (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; 1 May 1941 (Ira La Rivers), one female (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; near Reno, 18 June 1931 (W. Ivie), one male (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Elko, 1934 (M. W. Menke), one male (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; 16 June 1939 (Ira La Rivers), one male, one young (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]. Oregon: Umatilla County - Castle Rock, 13 July 1938 (Gray and Schuh), two females (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Wallowa County - Enterprise, 13 July 1935 (collecctor), one female (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Minam, 14 July 1938 (Gray and Schuh), two females (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Blue Mountains, July 1932 (Farrar), one male (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Wasco County - The Dalles, 23 June 1882 (S. Henshaw), one female (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]. Utah: Beaver County - Milford, 29 June 1945 (Shelford), one female (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Box Elder County - Lucin (41º20'N, 113º54'W), 19 June 1952 (D.E. Beck) 2 ♂ (BYU); Cache County - Logan (41º44'N, 111º50'W), 20 July 1938 (D. E. Hardy), one female (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; 4 July 1949 (Steve Dewey), ♂ (USU); 10 July 1995 (D. Rasmussen), ♂ (USU); Davis County - Hill Air Force Base [The county designation is probably incorrect as Hill Air Force Base Recreation Area is located in Weber County, not Davis County. See coordinates below under Weber County], 17 July 1991, (Mike Peterson), ♂ (BYU); Duchesne County - Myton, 19 July 1941 (G. F. Knowlton), one female (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Garfield County - Bryce Canyon Park, 1931 (J. A. Rowe), one male (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Kane County - Kanab, 20 June 1950 (G. F. Knowlton and G. E. Bohart), two males (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Zion National Park, 1 June 1929 (Dixie Woodbury), one female (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Millard County - Delta, 1 August 1949 (G. F. Knowlton), two males (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Filmore Canyon, 7 June 1934 (W. Ivie), one male (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Pine Valley, 15 July 1936 (collector?), one male (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; White Valley, 16 June 1940, one male  (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; 18 June 1940, one male (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; 19 July 1939 (R. W. Fautin), one female (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Salt Lake County - City Creek Canyon, 18 June 1928 (W. J. Gertsch), one male (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Salt Lake City, 21 August 1931 (W. J. Gertsch), four young females, one male (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; 1939 (collector?), one male (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)], October 1932 (collector?), one male, one young (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Saltair, 12July 1922 (E. P. Van Duzee), two females (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Sandy (40º35'N, 111º53'W), 24 June 1985 (Teresa Tipton), ♂ (USU); San Juan County - San Juan River between Copper and Piute canyons, 14 July 1937 (A. M. Woodbury), one male (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; Tooele County (says Uintah County on label) - Vernon (40º05'N, 112º25'W), 7 August 1964 (K. Bendixs), ♀ (USU); Utah County - Alpine (40º27'N, 111º46'W), 24 June 1997 (A.L. Huillet), ♂ (BYU); Environs, no coordinates, 14 June 1972 (Troy Cooper) ♀ (USU); Orem (40º17'N, 111º41'W), 20 June 1988 (R. Williams), ♀ (BYU); 7 July 1993 (Lisa Trotter), ♂ (BYU); Provo (40º14'N, 111º39'W), 1 September 1993  (D.O. White), ♀ (BYU); Santaquin (39º58'N, 111º47'W), 18 July 1987 (J. Jarvis), ♀ (USU); Spanish Fork (40º06'N, 111º39'W), 8 July 1979 (D. C. Holt), ♀ (USU); Washington County - near Blue Spring, 12 July 1931 (R. V. Chamberlin), one male (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]. Weber County - Hill Air Force Base (41º13'N, 111º50'W), 27 July 1995 (Larry Sanders), ♂ (BYU). Washington: Columbia County - Starbuck, 4 July 1938 (collector?), one male (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)]; 10 June 1938 (C. J. Burner), one female; Wenas County - Yakima River opposite Ellensburg, 8-9 July 1882 (S. Henshaw), three females (repository?) [recorded by Muma (1951) as E. scaber (Kraepelin)].

nOTES:  Muma (1951) described this species from a male that lacks a palpal scopula, and compared it to what he recognized as Eremobates scaber (Kraepelin) (see above).  Muma (1962) recorded a second male of Eremobates ascopulatus, collected in August, 1950, from Parma, Idaho. In a key to  members of the scaber group included his 1951 paper, Muma ascribed the following characters to Eremobates ascopulatus:  metatarsus of palpus without a scopula, abdominal ctenidia two in number. In the same key, he ascribed the following characters to Eremobatess scaber: metatarsus of palpus with a scopula, abdominal ctenidia two in number, straight, needle-like, distinct, flattened.   Commenting on Eremobates scaber (Kraepelin), Muma stated:

"This species is highly variable in size of males and to some extent in the opercula of the genital segment of the females. Although no tenable characters have been found for separation, it is quite possible that two or more species are still grouped here."

  After examining the holotype of Eremobates scaber (Kraepelin) in Europe, Muma (1970) concluded that what he had called Eremobates scaber in 1951 was misidentified.  He therefore erected E. septentrionis as a new name for Eremobates scaber (Kraepelin) sensu Muma 1951. He noted in his diagnosis that the palpal color is dusky purple.   Muma  (1970) opined that E. ctenidiellus, E. gladiolus, E. scaber, and E. septentrionis are closely related. Muma (1976) incuded both Eremobates ascopulatus and Eremobates septentrionis in an annotated list of Western Hemisphere Solpugida. Muma (1989), in a key to males of the scaber group, credited Eremobates ascopulatus Muma and Eremobates septentrionis Muma with the following features: Fondal notch distinctly deeper than wide,  indistinct to distinct dusky markings,  2 ctenidia.  He further characterized Eremobates ascopulatus as having pale, unmarked palpi with no scopulae, and short, flattened, widely-spaced ctenidia. Eremobates septentrionis was further characterized as having dusky terminal segments on its palpi, a scopula of 40-60 papillae on each palpus, and having flat and straight ctenidia.  Muma (1989) also described two new members of the  scaber group, Eremobates consors Muma and Eremobates  flavus Muma.  He commented that Eremobates consors could  be distinguished by the typical structure, but unusual conformation, of its opercula, and regarded the species as similar to E. scaber, E. ascopulatus, and E. clarus in the pale coloration of the palpi and legs. He noted that its strikingly different opercula separate it from E. scaber, but further noted that it may be the female of either of the latter two species.  Eremobates flavus, he reported, could be distinguished from other species of the scaber group by its possession of 2 flat ctenidia, separated by less than their length, pale legs and palpi, a scopula of 40 or more papillae, and a fondal notch deeper than wide or equal in depth and width. Females, he reported, have opercula quite similar to septentrionis, but have pale legs and palpi.  Individuals of E. flavus were reported to have been found only in central· to northwestern (counties north of Reno in northern Nevada).  In the key to males of the scaber group referenced above, Muma characterized Eremobates flavus as being pale to dark yellow, having a fondal notch equal in depth and width, or with depth only slightly greater than width, having on each palpus a scopula of 40-80 papillae but no distinct dark or dusky markings, and having 2 short flat ctenidia.  Eremobates consors, described from  a single female specimen, was not included in his key to males of the scaber group referenced above.  Muma (1989) noted the similarity between E. septentrionis and E. flavus and suggested that they may be the same species.     Brookhart and Cushing (2004) redescribed E. ascopulatus based on the holotype "reinforced by sample specimens", and synonymized E. septentrionis with E. ascopulatus based on examination of both types, which differ in only the absence of palpal papillae in E. ascopulatus. They reported that in large samples of papillate species, there is an occasional specimen without papillae, noting that their ongoing research seems to indicate that papillae may arise sequentially after the penultimate molt.  They noted that, prior to their publication, Eremobates ascopulatus was known from only two male specimens, both of which were found in the same geographic area as what was then known as E. septentrionis.  They also concurred with the assessment of Muma (1989) that E. septentrionis and E. flavus may be the same species, noting that, while the holotype of E. flavus from Reno, Nevada has longer, thinner ctenidia, other specimens from this area and nearby northeastern California have ctenidia and female genital opercula as in what they now recognize as  E. ascopulatus.  They also examined the holotype (and only known specimen) of Eremobates consors and concluded that the operculum, the shape of which prompted the recognition of E. consors, had been dessicated, accounting for the unique shape,  and that the specimen is referrable to E. ascopulatus.  They opined that Eremobates ascopulatus appears to be related to E. ctenidiellus and E. clarus, noting that Eremobates ascopulatus is distinguished from the latter by the shape of male chelicera, coloration of palpus and shape of female genital opercula.  They noted  that some northern California specimens are darker in overall color, suggesting perhaps a sibling species, but that more specimens are needed for examination in order to explore this possibility.  Brookhart and Brookhart (2006) failed to include Eremobates ascopulatus in their annotated checklist of continental North American Solifugae, in which they listed Eremobates septentrionis Muma 1951 [sic] as a synonym of Eremobates scaber (Kraepelin). No explanation was offered for the omission, which was likely an error.




























































































































































































































































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